Publications

2015
Dehghani Abbasi Y., Short M., Sinha A., Sintov N., Zhang Ch., and Tambe M. 2015. “Human Adversaries in Opportunistic Crime Security Games: How Past success (or failure) affects future behavior .” In Workshop on Behavioral, Economic and Computational Intelligence for Security (IJCAI).Abstract
There are a growing number of automated decision aids based on game-theoretic algorithms in daily use by security agencies to assist in allocating or scheduling their limited security resources. These applications of game theory, based on the “security games” paradigm, are leading to fundamental research challenges: one major challenge is modeling human bounded rationality. More specifically, the security agency, assisted with an automated decision aid, is assumed to act with perfect rationality against a human adversary; it is important to investigate the bounded rationality of these human adversaries to improve effectiveness of security resource allocation. In (Abbasi et al, 2015), the authors provide an empirical investigation of adversary bounded rationality in opportunistic crime settings. In this paper, we propose two additional factors in the “subjective utility quantal response” model.
2015_28_teamcore_ijcai2015_re_submitted_version.pdf
Zinovi Rabinovich, Albert X. Jiang, Manish Jain, and Haifeng Xu. 2015. “Information Disclosure as a Means to Security .” In International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS).Abstract
In this paper we present a novel Stackelberg-type model of security domains: Security Assets aSsignment with Information disclosure (SASI). The model combines both the features of the Stackelberg Security Games (SSGs) model and of the Bayesian Persuasion (BP) model. More specifically, SASI includes: a) an uncontrolled, exogenous security state that serves as the Defender’s private information; b) multiple security assets with non-accumulating, targetlocal defence capability; c) a pro-active, verifiable and public, unidirectional information disclosure channel from the Defender to the Attacker. We show that SASI with a non-degenerate information disclosure can be arbitrarily more efficient, than a “silent” Stackelberg assets allocation. We also provide a linear program reformulation of SASI that can be solved in polynomial time in SASI parameters. Furthermore, we show that it is possible to remove one of SASI parameters and, rather than require it as an input, recover it by computation. As a result, SASI becomes highly scalable.
2015_42_teamcore_sasi.pdf
Fei Fang, Thanh Nguyen, Benjamin Ford, Nicole Sintov, and Milind Tambe. 2015. “Introduction to Green Security Games (Extended Abstract) .” In Workshop on Cognitive Knowledge Acquisition and Applications (IJCAI 2015).Abstract
Conservation agencies around the world are tasked with protecting endangered wildlife from poaching. Despite their substantial efforts, however, species are continuing to be poached to critical status and, in some cases, extinction. In South Africa, rhino poaching has seen a recent escalation in frequency; while only 122 rhinos were poached in 2009, a record 1215 rhinos were poached in 2014 (approximately 1 rhino every eight hours)[the Rhino International, 2015]. To combat poaching, conservation agencies send well-trained rangers to patrol designated protected areas. However, these agencies have limited resources and are unable to provide 100% coverage to the entire area at all times. Thus, it is important that agencies make the most efficient use of their patrolling resources, and we introduce Green Security Games (GSGs) as a tool to aid agencies in designing effective patrols. First introduced by [Von Stengel and Zamir, 2004] as a Leadership Game, Stackelberg Games have been applied in a variety of Security Game research (i.e., Stackelberg Security Games, or SSGs). In particular, the focus on randomization in Stackelberg Games lends itself to solving real-world security problems where defenders have limited resources, such as randomly allocating Federal Air Marshals to international flights [Tsai et al., 2009]. However, the SSG model focuses on generating an optimal defender strategy against a single defender-attacker interaction (e.g., a single terrorist attack). For domains where attacks occur frequently, such as in wildlife conservation, another type of Security Game is needed that effectively models the repeated interactions between the defender and the attacker. While still following the Leader-Follower paradigm of SSGs, GSGs have been developed as a way of applying Game Theory to assist wildlife conservation efforts, whether its to prevent illegal fishing [Haskell et al., 2014], illegal logging [Johnson et al., 2012], or wildlife poaching [Yang et al., 2014]. GSGs are similar to SSGs except that, in GSGs, the game takes place over N rounds. In SSGs, once the attacker makes a decision, the game is over, but in GSGs, the attacker (e.g., the poacher) and defender have multiple rounds in which they can adapt to each other’s choices in previous rounds. This multi-round feature of GSGs introduces some key research challenges that are being studied: (1) how can we incorporate the attacker’s previous choices into our model of their behavior, in order to improve the defender’s strategy, [Yang et al., 2014; Kar et al., 2015] and (2) how do we choose a strategy such that the long-term payoff (i.e., cumulative expected utility) is maximized [Fang et al., 2015]? In addition to exploring these open research questions, we also discuss field tests of the Protection Assistant for Wildlife Security (PAWS) software in Uganda and Malaysia.
2015_27_teamcore_ijcai2015_gsg.pdf
Chao Zhang, Arunesh Sinha, and Milind Tambe. 2015. “Keeping pace with criminals: Designing patrol allocation against adaptive opportunistic criminals .” In International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2015).Abstract
Police patrols are used ubiquitously to deter crimes in urban areas. A distinctive feature of urban crimes is that criminals react opportunistically to patrol officers’ assignments. Compared to strategic attackers (such as terrorists) with a well-laid out plan, opportunistic criminals are less strategic in planning attacks and more flexible in executing them. In this paper, our goal is to recommend optimal police patrolling strategy against such opportunistic criminals. We first build a game-theoretic model that captures the interaction between officers and opportunistic criminals. However, while different models of adversary behavior have been proposed, their exact form remains uncertain. Rather than simply hypothesizing a model as done in previous work, one key contribution of this paper is to learn the model from real-world criminal activity data. To that end, we represent the criminal behavior and the interaction with the patrol officers as parameters of a Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN), enabling application of standard algorithms such as EM to learn the parameters. Our second contribution is a sequence of modifications to the DBN representation, that allows for a compact representation of the model resulting in better learning accuracy and increased speed of learning of the EM algorithm when used for the modified DBN. These modifications use marginalization approaches and exploit the structure of this problem. Finally, our third contribution is an iterative learning and planning mechanism that keeps updating the adversary model periodically. We demonstrate the efficiency of our learning algorithm by applying it to a real data set of criminal activity obtained from the police department of University of Southern California (USC) situated in Los Angeles, USA. We project a significant reduction in crime rate using our planning strategy as opposed to the actual strategy deployed by the police department. We also demonstrate the improvement in crime prevention in simulations when we use our iterative planning and learning mechanism compared to just learning once and planing. This work was done in collaboration with the police department of USC.
2015_13_teamcore_keep_pace_with_criminal.pdf
Chao Zhang, Manish Jain, Ripple Goyal, Arunesh Sinha, and Milind Tambe. 2015. “Keeping pace with criminals: Learning, Predicting and Planning against Crime: Demonstration Based on Real Urban Crime Data (Demonstration) .” In International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2015).Abstract
Crime in urban areas plagues every city in all countries. This demonstration will show a novel approach for learning and predicting crime patterns and planning against such crimes using real urban crime data. A notable characteristic of urban crime, distinct from organized terrorist attacks, is that most urban crimes are opportunistic in nature, i.e., criminals do not plan their attacks in detail, rather they seek opportunities for committing crime and are agile in their execution of the crime [6, 7, 1, 4]. Police officers conduct patrols with the aim of preventing crime. However, criminals can adapt their strategy in response of police deployment by seeking crime opportunity in less effectively patrolled location. The problem of where and how much to patrol is therefore important. There are two approaches to solve this problem. The first approach is to schedule patrols manually by human planners, which is followed in various police departments. However, it has been demonstrated that manual planning of patrols is not only time-consuming but also highly ineffective in related scenarios of protecting airport terminals [3] and ships in ports [5]. The second approach is to use automated planners to plan patrols against urban crime. This approach has either focused on modeling the criminal explicitly [7,6] (rational, bounded rational, etc.) in a game model or to learn the adversary behavior using machine learning [2]. However, the proposed mathematical models of criminal behavior have not been validated with real data. Also, prior machine learning approaches have either only focused on the adversary actions ignoring their adaptation to the defenders’ actions [2]. Hence, in this presentation we propose a novel approach to learn and update the criminal behavior from real data [8]. We model the interaction between criminals and patrol officers as a Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN). Figure 1 shows an example of such DBN. Next, we apply a dynamic programming algorithm to generate optimal patrol strategy against the learned criminal model. By iteratively updating the criminals’ model and computing patrol strategy against them, we help patrol officers keep up with criminals’ adaptive behavior and execute effective patrols. This process is shown as a flow chart in Figure 2. With this context, the demonstration presented in this paper introduces a web-based software with two contributions. First, our system collects and analyzes crime reports and resources (security camera, emergency supplies, etc.) data, presenting them in various forms. Second, our patrol scheduler incorporates the algorithm in [8] in a scheduling recommendation system. The demonstration will engage audience members by having them participate as patrol officers and using the software to ‘patrol’ the University of Southern California (USC) campus in USA.
2015_15_teamcore_de005_zhang_learning_demo.pdf
Debarun Kar, Fei Fang, Francesco Delle Fave, Nicole Sintov, Arunesh Sinha, Aram Galstyan, Bo An, and Milind Tambe. 2015. “Learning Bounded Rationality Models of the Adversary in Repeated Stackelberg Security Games .” In Adaptive and Learning Agents Workshop at the International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2015).Abstract
Several competing human behavior models have been proposed to model and protect against boundedly rational adversaries in repeated Stackelberg security games (SSGs). However, these existing models fail to address three main issues which are extremely detrimental to defender performance. First, while they attempt to learn adversary behavior models from adversaries’ past actions (“attacks on targets”), they fail to take into account adversaries’ future adaptation based on successes or failures of these past actions. Second, they assume that sufficient data in the initial rounds will lead to a reliable model of the adversary. However, our analysis reveals that the issue is not the amount of data, but that there just is not enough of the attack surface exposed to the adversary to learn a reliable model. Third, current leading approaches have failed to include probability weighting functions, even though it is well known that human beings’ weighting of probability is typically nonlinear. Moreover, the performances of these models may be critically dependent on the learning algorithm used to learn the parameters of these models. The first contribution of this paper is a new human behavior model, SHARP, which mitigates these three limitations as follows: (i) SHARP reasons based on success or failure of the adversary’s past actions on exposed portions of the attack surface to model adversary adaptiveness; (ii) SHARP reasons about similarity between exposed and unexposed areas of the attack surface, and also incorporates a discounting parameter to mitigate adversary’s lack of exposure to enough of the attack surface; and (iii) SHARP integrates a non-linear probability weighting function to capture the adversary’s true weighting of probability. Our second contribution is a comparison of two different approaches for learning the parameters of the bounded rationality models. Our third contribution is a first “longitudinal study” – at least in the context of SSGs – of competing models in settings involving repeated interaction between the attacker and the defender. This study, where each experiment lasted a period of multiple weeks with individual sets of human subjects, illustrates the strengths and weaknesses of different models and shows the advantages of SHARP.
2015_27_teamcore_ijcai2015_gsg.pdf
D. J. Gerber, E. Pantazis, L. S. Marcolino, and A. Heydarian. 2015. “A Multi-Agent Systems for Design Simulation Framework: Experiments with Virtual-Physical-Social Feedback for Architecture .” In Symposium on Simulation for Architecture and Urban Design (SimAUD 2015).Abstract
This paper presents research on the development of multiagent systems (MAS) for integrated and performance driven architectural design. It presents the development of a simulation framework that bridges architecture and engineering, through a series of multi-agent based experiments. The research is motivated to combine multiple design agencies into a system for managing and optimizing architectural form, across multiple objectives and contexts. The research anticipates the incorporation of feedback from real world human behavior and user preferences with physics based structural form finding and environmental analysis data. The framework is a multi-agent system that provides design teams with informed design solutions, which simultaneously optimize and satisfy competing design objectives. The initial results for building structures are measured in terms of the level of lighting improvements and qualitatively in geometric terms. Critical to the research is the elaboration of the system and the feedback loops that are possible when using the multi-agent systems approach.
2015_18_teamcore_simaud2015.pdf
Eric Shieh. 2015. “Not a Lone Ranger: Unleashing Defender Teamwork in Security Games ”.Abstract
Game theory has become an important research area in handling complex security resource allocation and patrolling problems. Stackelberg Security Games (SSGs) have been used in modeling these types of problems via a defender and an attacker(s). Despite recent successful real-world deployments of SSGs, scale-up to handle defender teamwork remains a fundamental challenge in this field. The latest techniques do not scale-up to domains where multiple defenders must coordinate time-dependent joint activities. To address this challenge, my thesis presents algorithms for solving defender teamwork in SSGs in two phases. As a first step, I focus on domains without execution uncertainty, in modeling and solving SSGs that incorporate teamwork among defender resources via three novel features: (i) a column-generation approach that uses an ordered network of nodes (determined by solving the traveling salesman problem) to generate individual defender strategies; (ii) exploitation of iterative reward shaping of multiple coordinating defender units to generate coordinated strategies; (iii) generation of tighter upper-bounds for pruning by solving security games that only abide by key scheduling constraints. In the second stage of my thesis, I address execution uncertainty among defender resources that arises from the real world by integrating the powerful teamwork mechanisms offered by decentralized Markov Decision Problems (Dec-MDPs) into security games. My thesis offers the following novel contributions: (i) New model of security games with defender teams that coordinate under uncertainty; (ii) New algorithm based on column generation that utilizes Decentralized Markov Decision Processes (Dec-MDPs) to generate defender strategies that incorporate uncertainty; (iii) New techniques to handle global events (when one or more agents may leave the system) during defender execution; (iv) Heuristics that help scale up in the number of targets and resources to handle real-world scenarios; (v) Exploration of the robustness of randomized pure strategies. Different mechanisms, from both solving situations with and without execution uncertainty, may be used depending on the features of the domain. This thesis opens the door to a powerful combination of previous work in multiagent systems on teamwork and security games.
2015_19_teamcore_shieh_thesis_20150324.pdf
L. S. Marcolino, H. Xu, A.X. Jiang, M. Tambe, and E. Bowring. 2015. “The Power of Teams that Disagree: Team Formation in Large Action Spaces .” In Coordination, Organizations, Institutions and Norms in Agent Systems X. Springer-Verlag Lecture Notes in AI, 2015.Abstract
Recent work has shown that diverse teams can outperform a uniform team made of copies of the best agent. However, there are fundamental questions that were never asked before. When should we use diverse or uniform teams? How does the performance change as the action space or the teams get larger? Hence, we present a new model of diversity, where we prove that the performance of a diverse team improves as the size of the action space increases. Moreover, we show that the performance converges exponentially fast to the optimal one as we increase the number of agents. We present synthetic experiments that give further insights: even though a diverse team outperforms a uniform team when the size of the action space increases, the uniform team will eventually again play better than the diverse team for a large enough action space. We verify our predictions in a system of Go playing agents, where a diverse team improves in performance as the board size increases, and eventually overcomes a uniform team.1
2015_32_teamcore_coin2014book.pdf
Amulya Yadav, Leandro Soriano Marcolino, Eric Rice, Robin Petering, Hailey Winetrobe, Harmony Rhoades, Milind Tambe, and Heather Carmichael. 2015. “PSINET: Aiding HIV Prevention Amongst Homeless Youth by Planning Ahead .” AI Magazine.Abstract
Homeless youth are prone to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) due to their engagement in high risk behavior such as unprotected sex, sex under influence of drugs, etc. Many non-profit agencies conduct interventions to educate and train a select group of homeless youth about HIV prevention and treatment practices and rely on word-of-mouth spread of information through their social network. Previous work in strategic selection of intervention participants does not handle uncertainties in the social network’s structure and evolving network state, potentially causing significant shortcomings in spread of information. Thus, we developed PSINET, a decision support system to aid the agencies in this task. PSINET includes the following key novelties: (i) it handles uncertainties in network structure and evolving network state; (ii) it addresses these uncertainties by using POMDPs in influence maximization; and (iii) it provides algorithmic advances to allow high quality approximate solutions for such POMDPs. Simulations show that PSINET achieves ∼60% more information spread over the current state-of-the-art. PSINET was developed in collaboration with My Friend’s Place (a drop-in agency serving homeless youth in Los Angeles) and is currently being reviewed by their officials.
2015_25_teamcore_aimag_yadav.pdf
Amulya Yadav, Leandro Marcolino, Eric Rice, Robin Petering, Hailey Winetrobe, Harmony Rhoades, Milind Tambe, and Heather Carmichael. 2015. “PSINET - An Online POMDP Solver for HIV Prevention in Homeless Populations .” In In AAAI-15 Workshop on Planning, Search, and Optimization (PlanSOpt-15).Abstract
Homeless youth are prone to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) due to their engagement in high risk behavior such as unprotected sex, sex under influence of drugs, etc. Many non-profit agencies conduct interventions to educate and train a select group of homeless youth about HIV prevention and treatment practices and rely on word-of-mouth spread of information through their social network. Previous work in strategic selection of intervention participants does not handle uncertainties in the social network’s structure and evolving network state, potentially causing significant shortcomings in spread of information. Thus, we developed PSINET, a decision support system to aid the agencies in this task. PSINET includes the following key novelties: (i) it handles uncertainties in network structure and evolving network state; (ii) it addresses these uncertainties by using POMDPs in influence maximization; and (iii) it provides algorithmic advances to allow high quality approximate solutions for such POMDPs. Simulations show that PSINET achieves ∼60% more information spread over the current state-of-the-art. PSINET was developed in collaboration with My Friend’s Place (a drop-in agency serving homeless youth in Los Angeles) and is currently being reviewed by their officials.
2015_4_teamcore_yadav.pdf
Arjun Tambe and Thanh Nguyen. 2015. “Robust Resource Allocation in Security Games and Ensemble Modeling of Adversary Behavior .” In ACM Symposium on Applied Computing (ACM SAC 2015) Track on Intelligent Robotics and Multi-Agent Systems (IRMAS).Abstract
Game theoretic algorithms have been used to optimize the allocation of security resources to improve the protection of critical infrastructure against threats when limits on security resources prevent full protection of all targets. Past approaches have assumed adversaries will always behave to maximize their expected utility, failing to address real-world adversaries who are not perfectly rational. Instead, adversaries may be boundedly rational, i.e., they generally act to increase their expected value but do not consistently maximize it. A successful approach to addressing bounded adversary rationality has been a robust approach that does not explicitly model adversary behavior. However, these robust algorithms implicitly rely on an efficiently computable weak model of adversary behavior, which does not necessarily match adversary behavior trends. We therefore propose a new robust algorithm that provides a more refined model of adversary behavior that retains the advantage of efficient computation. We also develop an ensemble method used to tune the algorithm’s parameters, and compare this method’s accuracy in predicting adversary behavior to previous work. We test these contributions in security games against human subjects to show the advantages of our approach.
2015_5_teamcore_arjun_paper.pdf
Yundi Qian, William B. Haskell, and Milind Tambe. 2015. “Robust Strategy against Unknown Risk-averse Attackers in Security Games .” In International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2015).Abstract
Stackelberg security games (SSGs) are now established as a powerful tool in security domains. In this paper, we consider a new dimension of security games: the risk preferences of the attacker. Previous work assumes a risk-neutral attacker that maximizes his expected reward. However, extensive studies show that the attackers in some domains are in fact risk-averse, e.g., terrorist groups in counter-terrorism domains. The failure to incorporate the risk aversion in SSG models may lead the defender to suffer significant losses. Additionally, defenders are uncertain about the degree of attacker’s risk aversion. Motivated by this challenge this paper provides the following five contributions: (i) we propose a novel model for security games against risk-averse attackers with uncertainty in the degree of their risk aversion; (ii) we develop an intuitive MIBLP formulation based on previous security games research, but find that it finds locally optimal solutions and is unable to scale up; (iii) based on insights from our MIBLP formulation, we develop our scalable BeRRA algorithm that finds globally ǫ-optimal solutions; (iv) our BeRRA algorithm can also be extended to handle other risk-aware attackers, e.g., risk-seeking attackers; (v) we show that we do not need to consider attacker’s risk attitude in zero-sum games.
2015_12_teamcore_yundi_aamas2015.pdf
Haifeng Xu, Albert X. Jiang, Arunesh Sinha, Zinovi Rabinovich, Shaddin Dughmi, and Milind Tambe. 2015. “Security Games with Information Leakage: Modeling and Computation .” In International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI 2015).Abstract
Most models of Stackelberg security games assume that the attacker only knows the defender’s mixed strategy, but is not able to observe (even partially) the instantiated pure strategy. Such partial observation of the deployed pure strategy – an issue we refer to as information leakage – is a significant concern in practical applications. While previous research on patrolling games has considered the attacker’s real-time surveillance, our settings, therefore models and techniques, are fundamentally different. More specifically, after describing the information leakage model, we start with an LP formulation to compute the defender’s optimal strategy in the presence of leakage. Perhaps surprisingly, we show that a key subproblem to solve this LP (more precisely, the defender oracle) is NP-hard even for the simplest of security game models. We then approach the problem from three possible directions: efficient algorithms for restricted cases, approximation algorithms, and heuristic algorithms for sampling that improves upon the status quo. Our experiments confirm the necessity of handling information leakage and the advantage of our algorithms.
2015_22_teamcore_infor_leakage.pdf
L. S. Marcolino and M. Tambe. 2015. “Three Fundamental Pillars of Multi-agent Team Formation (Doctoral Consortium) .” In International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2015).Abstract
Teams of voting agents are a powerful tool for solving complex problems. When forming such teams, there are three fundamental issues that must be addressed: (i) Selecting which agents should form a team; (ii) Aggregating the opinions of the agents; (iii) Assessing the performance of a team. In this thesis we address all these points.
2015_17_teamcore_aamas15dc.pdf
L. S. Marcolino and M. Tambe. 2015. “Unleashing the Power of Multi-agent Voting Teams (Doctoral Consortium) .” In International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI 2015).Abstract
Teams of voting agents have great potential in finding optimal solutions. However, there are fundamental challenges to effectively use such teams: (i) selecting agents; (ii) aggregating opinions; (iii) assessing performance. I address all these challenges, with theoretical and experimental contributions.
2015_26_teamcore_ijcai15dc.pdf
D. Kar, F. Fang, F. Delle Fave, N. Sintov, M. Tambe, and A. Van Wissen. 2015. “Effectiveness of Probability Perception Modeling and Defender Strategy Generation Algorithms in Repeated Stackelberg Games: An Initial Report.” In Computational Sustainability Workshop at AAAI’15, Texas, Austin.Abstract
While human behavior models based on repeated Stackelberg games have been proposed for domains such as “wildlife crime” where there is repeated interaction between the defender and the adversary, there has been no empirical study with human subjects to show the effectiveness of such models. This paper presents an initial study based on extensive human subject experiments with participants on Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT). Our findings include: (i) attackers may view the defender’s coverage probability in a non-linear fashion; specifically it follows an S-shaped curve, and (ii) there are significant losses in defender utility when strategies generated by existing models are deployed in repeated Stackelberg game settings against human subjects.
2015_7_teamcore_debarun_kar_aaai15_cs_workshop.pdf
Debarun Kar, Fei Fang, Francesco Delle Fave, Nicole Sintov, and Milind Tambe. 2015. “A Game of Thrones: When Human Behavior Models Compete in Repeated Stackelberg Security Games.” In International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS 2015).Abstract
Several competing human behavior models have been proposed to model and protect against boundedly rational adversaries in repeated Stackelberg security games (SSGs). However, these existing models fail to address three main issues which are extremely detrimental to defender performance. First, while they attempt to learn adversary behavior models from adversaries’ past actions (“attacks on targets”), they fail to take into account adversaries’ future adaptation based on successes or failures of these past actions. Second, they assume that sufficient data in the initial rounds will lead to a reliable model of the adversary. However, our analysis reveals that the issue is not the amount of data, but that there just is not enough of the attack surface exposed to the adversary to learn a reliable model. Third, current leading approaches have failed to include probability weighting functions, even though it is well known that human beings’ weighting of probability is typically nonlinear. The first contribution of this paper is a new human behavior model, SHARP, which mitigates these three limitations as follows: (i) SHARP reasons based on success or failure of the adversary’s past actions on exposed portions of the attack surface to model adversary adaptiveness; (ii) SHARP reasons about similarity between exposed and unexposed areas of the attack surface, and also incorporates a discounting parameter to mitigate adversary’s lack of exposure to enough of the attack surface; and (iii) SHARP integrates a non-linear probability weighting function to capture the adversary’s true weighting of probability. Our second contribution is a first “longitudinal study” – at least in the context of SSGs – of competing models in settings involving repeated interaction between the attacker and the defender. This study, where each experiment lasted a period of multiple weeks with individual sets of human subjects, illustrates the strengths and weaknesses of different models and shows the advantages of SHARP.
2015_11_teamcore_aamas15_fp85_crc.pdf
Thanh H. Nguyen, Francesco M. Delle Fave, Debarun Kar, Aravind S. Lakshminarayanan, Amulya Yadav, Milind Tambe, Noa Agmon, Andrew J. Plumptre, Margaret Driciru, Fred Wanyama, and Aggrey Rwetsiba. 2015. “Making the most of Our Regrets: Regret-based Solutions to Handle Payoff Uncertainty and Elicitation in Green Security Games.” In Conference on Decision and Game Theory for Security.Abstract
Recent research on Green Security Games (GSG), i.e., security games for the protection of wildlife, forest and fisheries, relies on the promise of an abundance of available data in these domains to learn adversary behavioral models and determine game payoffs. This research suggests that adversary behavior models (capturing bounded rationality) can be learned from real-world data on where adversaries have attacked, and that game payoffs can be determined precisely from data on animal densities. However, previous work has, as yet, failed to demonstrate the usefulness of these behavioral models in capturing adversary behaviors based on real-world data in GSGs. Previous work has also been unable to address situations where available data is insufficient to accurately estimate behavioral models or to obtain the required precision in the payoff values. In addressing these limitations, as our first contribution, this paper, for the first time, provides validation of the aforementioned adversary behavioral models based on real-world data from a wildlife park in Uganda. Our second contribution addresses situations where real-world data is not precise enough to determine exact payoffs in GSG, by providing the first algorithm to handle payoff uncertainty in the presence of adversary behavioral models. This algorithm is based on the notion of minimax regret. Furthermore, in scenarios where the data is not even sufficient to learn adversary behaviors, our third contribution is to provide a novel algorithm to address payoff uncertainty assuming a perfectly rational attacker (instead of relying on a behavioral model); this algorithm allows for a significant scaleup for large security games. Finally, to reduce the problems due to paucity of data, given mobile sensors such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), we introduce new payoff elicitation strategies to strategically reduce uncertainty.
2015_35_teamcore_gamesec2015_arrow.pdf
Amulya Yadav, Leandro Marcolino, Eric Rice, Robin Petering, Hailey Winetrobe, Harmony Rhoades, Milind Tambe, and Heather Carmichael. 2015. “Preventing HIV Spread in Homeless Populations Using PSINET.” In Conference on Innovative Applications of Artificial Intelligence (IAAI-15).Abstract
Homeless youth are prone to HIV due to their engagement in high risk behavior. Many agencies conduct interventions to educate/train a select group of homeless youth about HIV prevention practices and rely on word-of-mouth spread of information through their social network. Previous work in strategic selection of intervention participants does not handle uncertainties in the social network’s structure and in the evolving network state, potentially causing significant shortcomings in spread of information. Thus, we developed PSINET, a decision support system to aid the agencies in this task. PSINET includes the following key novelties: (i) it handles uncertainties in network structure and evolving network state; (ii) it addresses these uncertainties by using POMDPs in influence maximization; (iii) it provides algorithmic advances to allow high quality approximate solutions for such POMDPs. Simulations show that PSINET achieves ∼60% more information spread over the current state-of-the-art. PSINET was developed in collaboration with My Friend’s Place (a drop-in agency serving homeless youth in Los Angeles) and is currently being reviewed by their officials.
2015_6_teamcore_iaai15.pdf

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